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The 3 types of metabolism: which is yours? What can you do to optimise it?

Which is your morphotype and metabolism according to William Sheldon’s characterisation? Discover how to gain, stabilise or lose weight, depending on your particular classification.
Ectomorph, endomorph and mesomorph
William Sheldon established the theory of 3 distinct morphotypes, each with its own metabolism.
Rédaction Supersmart.
2022-09-06Comments (0)

Metabolism and morphotypes, according to William Sheldon

The following classification of different metabolism types is directly inspired by the morphotype theory of William Sheldon, an American doctor from the first half of the 20th century whose work has had a significant impact.

He believed that we are all biologically determined before birth, hence the use of terms borrowed from embryology in his classification. Essentially, his theory was that (1):

But William Sheldon didn’t stop there: he believed these morphotypes or somatotypes to be associated with the following behavioural characteristics:

This concept has similarities with the Ayurvedic theory of 3 doshas: vata (which would correspond to the ectomorph), pitta (which would correspond to the mesomorph) and kapha (which would correspond to the endomorph), cf. see our blog article on these 3 doshas.

Metabolism: beware of determinism!

William Sheldon’s whole theory has since been rejected. On the one hand, it is now accepted that the behavioural and psychological aspect of his classification is absurd; no-one supports it anymore (2-3).

On the other, recent studies have shown that throughout life, we all exist in reality on a continuum between different morphotypes depending on our muscle mass, fat mass, stress levels, etc. (4)

We therefore need to remember that determinism has no place here and that there are definitely ways of optimising your metabolism, promoting muscle gain or fat loss, stabilising your weight and improving your stress management.

Such methods rely on exercise, diet, meditation, psychological support and selected dietary supplements.

Ectomorph metabolism

According to William Sheldon’s classification, an ectomorph is thin with minimal muscle.

Even though his theory is outdated, it’s undeniable that this description does indeed correspond to reality for many individuals.

However, the problem arises when you have an ectomorph physique and the metabolism that goes with it: however much you try to put on weight or to gain muscle, it simply doesn’t work.

This can mean several things:

Attention: weight-training increases your muscle mass and therefore your metabolism. So you’ll need to boost your calorie intake in order to continue gaining weight and muscle.

Mesomorph metabolism

In William Sheldon’s classification as in real life, those categorised as mesomorphs are the lucky ones. They have a a well-balanced physique and a favourable metabolism which means they can be relaxed about what they eat without putting on weight.

So for mesomorphs, the challenge is primarily to remain stable, and to avoid tipping over into endomorph, or more rarely, ectomorph, territory (the body more naturally tends towards endomorphism).

There are three possible ways of ensuring this:

Endomorph metabolism

That just leaves the endomorphs, who gain weight easily and lack tone and energy. By definition, there’s a discrepancy between their metabolic rate and their energy intake which means they can quickly tip over into obesity.

Since the 1990s, scientists have been studying the role played by a specific hormone called leptin in the mechanisms governing obesity (9).

In short, when cells contain too much fat, they produce leptin in order to signal to the brain to stop taking in food and storing fat.

While diet is undoubtedly the main cause of obesity, it also seems that eating too much sugar and fat eventually causes leptin receptors to lose their sensitivity. Overcoming obesity then becomes very difficult.

Consequently, the ways in which you can compensate for an endomorph-type metabolism are as follows:

References

  1. SHELDON, William A. Atlas of men, a guide for somatotyping the adult male at all ages.
  2. MADDAN, Sean, WALKER, Jeffery T., et MILLER, J. Mitchell. Does size really matter?: A reexamination of sheldon's somatotypes and criminal behavior. The Social Science Journal, 2008, vol. 45, no 2, p. 330-344.
  3. VERTINSKY, Patricia. Embodying normalcy: Anthropometry and the long arm of William H. Sheldon's somatotyping project. Journal of Sport History, 2002, vol. 29, no 1, p. 95-133.
  4. CARTER, JE Lindsay, CARTER, JE Lindsay, et HEATH, Barbara Honeyman. Somatotyping: development and applications. Cambridge university press, 1990.
  5. BURKE, Louise M. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and athletic performance. International SportMed Journal, 2001, vol. 2, no 3, p. 1-7.
  6. PEETERS, G. M. E. E., VAN SCHOOR, N. M., VAN ROSSUM, E. F. C., et al.The relationship between cortisol, muscle mass and muscle strength in older persons and the role of genetic variations in the glucocorticoid receptor. Clinical endocrinology, 2008, vol. 69, no 4, p. 673-682.
  7. MORLEY, John E., ARGILES, Josep M., EVANS, William J., et al.Nutritional recommendations for the management of sarcopenia. Journal of the american Medical Directors association, 2010, vol. 11, no 6, p. 391-396.
  8. WHITE, C. Michael. A review of human studies assessing cannabidiol's (CBD) therapeutic actions and potential. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 2019, vol. 59, no 7, p. 923-934.
  9. IZQUIERDO, Andrea G., CRUJEIRAS, Ana B., CASANUEVA, Felipe F., et al.Leptin, obesity, and leptin resistance: where are we 25 years later?. Nutrients, 2019, vol. 11, no 11, p. 2704.
  10. HENDERSON, Shonteh, MAGU, Bahrat, RASMUSSEN, Chris, et al.Effects of coleus forskohlii supplementation on body composition and hematological profiles in mildly overweight women. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 2005, vol. 2, no 2, p. 1-9.
  11. POTHURAJU, Ramesh, SHARMA, Raj Kumar, CHAGALAMARRI, Jayasimha, et al.A systematic review of Gymnema sylvestre in obesity and diabetes management. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 2014, vol. 94, no 5, p. 834-840.
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